Lumps and bumps. We see a lot of them in podiatry. They can occasionally be due to a previous injury which caused the development of extra tissue - whether it be bone or something else. However, most of the time, an extra spike or spur of bone is there because there is excess pressure or strain from a mechanical variant in your foot.
Two most common examples are bumps on TOP of the big toe joint and a bump on the back of the heel. The bump that typically forms over the top of the great toe joint are due to abnormal mechanics in the foot which cause jamming of the joint when you are walking or running. While occasionally the extra bone can develop after a traumatic jamming of the toe, this process is progressive and is usually associated with a loss of cartilage within the joint as well. Taking the bump off can sometimes provide temporary relief, but we can't predict how long the relief will last for. If there is an obvious abnormality in the way your foot structure is and this can be addressed surgically to yield a more long-lasting treatment, this may be discussed in addition to removing the 'bump'.
When it comes to the bone spur that develops in the back of the heel, it is also due to strain beyond the normal amount in the foot. The achilles tendon attaches to the back of the heel and when it is tight - and especially in some very active individuals - the bone grows a spur which is actually embedded within the tendon. In order to remove the spur in this case, the tendon actually has to be moved away from the bone and then be repaired after the bone has been removed.